In the May print issue of the Port Side, we published an infographic spread on the gender and race of permanent faculty – meaning tenure and tenure track professors (TTTP) – at the 5Cs. We think the graphics begin to give readers a good idea of who gets tenure at the Claremont Colleges, but there’s more to the data than what we displayed. Here, the Port Side goes in-depth into the gender and race of Claremont’s permanent faculty.
Unless otherwise noted, all figures and data are from the 2011-12 school year. Data for the Claremont Colleges comes from the National Center for Education Statistics’ (NCES) IPEDS Data Center, and national data is published in the NCES Digest of Education Statistics: 2012. (The dataset for the Claremont Colleges is available at the end of this article.)
On Tenure, the 5Cs Beat the Curve
Overall, there are 532 TTTP at the Claremont Colleges – 396 tenured professors and 136 tenure track professors. Pomona, the largest of the 5Cs, has 178 TTTP (136 tenured, 42 tenure track); Claremont McKenna has 123 TTTP (89 tenured, 34 tenure track); Harvey Mudd has 81 TTTP (68 tenured, 13 tenure track); Scripps has 78 TTTP (55 tenured, 23 tenure track); Pitzer, the smallest, has 72 TTTP (48 tenured, 24 tenure track).
Nationally, the prevalence of tenure in higher education has declined. 45.3% of postsecondary institutions have tenure systems today, compared to 62.6% during the 1993-94 school year. Of institutions with tenure systems, 56.2% of full-time faculty had tenure in 1993-94, though only 49% do today.
At the 5Cs, 65.7% of full-time faculty are tenured, and 22.6% are in a tenure track position. Harvey Mudd has an especially high percentage of tenured faculty, at 78.2% of full-time faculty, while CMC is on the low end, at 58.6% of full-time faculty. Still, even CMC’s figure is almost 10 points above the national average.
Gender of Permanent Faculty
Nationally, 51.8% of faculty at postsecondary institutions are male and 48.2% are female. There has been marked improvement in nationwide faculty gender equality in the last two decades; in fall 1991, 63.6% of faculty were male.
At the 5Cs, 61.4% of tenured faculty are male, and 52.9% of tenure track faculty are male. Overall, 59.2% of 5C TTTP are male and 40.8% are female. Yet the gender equality of TTTP varies greatly across the Claremont Colleges.
CMC fares the worst when it comes to gender equality of TTTP. Of their 89 tenured professors, 67 (or 75.3%) are male, while 22 (24.7%) are female. There is some improvement among tenure track faculty – there are 22 male (64.7%) and 12 female (35.3%) tenure track professors. Overall, 72.4% of TTTP at CMC are male, while 27.6% are female.
At Harvey Mudd, 60.5% of TTTP are male and 39.5% are female. While its tenured faculty is 66.2% male, Harvey Mudd seems to have made a marked effort to improve its faculty gender equality, since nine of its 13 tenure track professors are female, meaning female professors constitute 69.2% of Mudd’s tenure track professors.
59% of Pomona’s TTTP are male and 41% are female. Those percentages remain fairly consistent when considering only tenured or tenure track faculty – 59.6% of tenured professors and 57.1% of tenure track professors are male.
Pitzer’s tenured and tenure track faculty is evenly split, with 36 male and 36 female TTTP. Their tenured faculty is 56.3% male, while their tenure track faculty is 62.5% female. As noted in the Port Side’s previous article on gender equality, Pitzer has had a policy of affirmative action in hiring practices for the past few years, but recently discontinued that policy.
Scripps is the only 5C institution to have more female TTTP than male. 53.8% of Scripps’ TTTP are female, with 42 female TTTP and 36 male. Almost 60% of its tenured professors are female (32 female out of 55 total), while there are 3 more male tenure track professors than female ones (13 male vs. 10 female tenure track professors).
In coming years, the percentage of female professors should increase. Since the 2005-06 school year, more females have received doctoral degrees than males. 51.4% of students who earned doctorates during the 2010-11 school year were female.
Race of Permanent Faculty
Nationally, 73.8% of faculty are white, 18.7% are minorities, and 7.5% in an “other” category. Minority faculty include black or African-American, Hispanic or Latin@, Asian or Pacific Islander, American Indian or Alaska Native, and multiracial faculty. Other faculty include non-resident aliens and faculty whose race/ethnicity is unknown.
The NCES stipulates that schools report multiracial faculty and non-resident aliens separately from their racial or ethnic categories. This, along with the presence of faculty whose race/ethnicity is unknown, means that the race/ethnicity percentages presented here may not be completely accurate. Still, they give a good portrait of the racial/ethnic makeup of permanent 5C faculty.
At the 5Cs, 68.1% of permanent faculty are white, 24.6% are minorities, and 7.3% fall into Other. Compared to the rest of the country, the Claremont Colleges have a lower percentage of white faculty and a higher percentage of minority faculty.
Almost 80% of permanent faculty at both CMC and Harvey Mudd are white. At 73.1% white, Scripps’s permanent faculty hovers just below the national average. Pitzer comes in at 61.1% white and Pomona at 55.6% white. Pomona has the lowest percentage of white professors, yet Pitzer has the highest percentage of minority professors (33.3%, compared to 29.2% at Pomona). Given Pomona’s abnormally large Other category – 27 of Pomona’s 178 TTTP (or 15.2%) did not report their race/ethnicity – it is difficult to accurately compare Pomona to other schools.
The 5Cs have a significant lack of black professors – 3.4% of 5C permanent faculty are black or African American, compared to 6.9% nationwide. The 6.9% figure is itself low, since black people and African Americans constitute 12.6% of the U.S. population. During the 2010-11 school year, 6.7% of students receiving doctoral degrees were black or African American. Part of the problem may therefore lie in black enrollment in doctoral programs, and not only postsecondary hiring practices.
Pitzer has the most black or African American TTTP, with four black tenured professors and two black tenure track professors; black professors constitute 8.3% of its permanent faculty. Pomona has four black or African American TTTP (2.3% of permanent faculty), CMC and Harvey Mudd each have three (2.4% and 3.7%, respectively), and Scripps has one black tenured professor and one black tenure track professor (2.6% of permanent faculty).
Each of the 5Cs exceeds the national average when it comes to Asian or Pacific Islander faculty, and all of the Claremont Colleges but CMC exceed the national average for Hispanic or Latin@ faculty. Overall, 11.5% of permanent 5C faculty are Asian or Pacific Islander (compared to 6.4% nationwide), and 7.9% are Hispanic or Latin@ (compared to 4.3% nationwide).
Like with black or African American academics, Hispanic or Latin@ academics are underrepresented nationwide. Hispanic or Latin@ people make up 16.4% of the U.S. population, yet only 4.3% of this country’s professors and 5.9% of its doctoral graduates.
On the other hand, Asian or Pacific Islander academics are overrepresented. Asians and Pacific Islanders constitute roughly 5% of the U.S. population, yet account for 6.4% of the country’s professors and 11.1% of its doctoral graduates.
For the past decade, white people have constituted roughly two-thirds of students receiving doctoral degrees. Since 5C permanent faculty is 68.1% white, it seems reasonable to expect that the percentage of white 5C TTTP will remain fairly constant, though the makeup of minority TTTP may change.
Where Gender and Race Meet
What might be most revealing about race and gender of permanent 5C faculty is looking at gender representation within particular racial/ethnic groups.
Nationwide, white males constitute 38.5% of postsecondary faculty. At the 5Cs, they make up 41.5% of TTTP. White males account for almost 60% of CMC’s permanent faculty and over 50% of Harvey Mudd’s, while the percentages of white male faculty at the other 5Cs are below the national average.
With 30 white female TTTP, Scripps has three more white female TTTP than white male. It is the only 5C with more white female faculty than white male faculty.
Nationwide, there are more female minority professors than male minority professors (9.5% of total faculty vs. 9.2%). Compared to the rest of the country, there’s a greater percentage of minority professors at all 5Cs but CMC, yet 5C minority male professors slightly outnumber their minority female colleagues, 69 to 62 (or 13.0% vs. 11.7% of 5C permanent faculty).
As noted above, black/African American faculty are underrepresented at the 5Cs, and this is particularly true of black female professors. Black women account for 58.4% of black faculty nationwide; at the 5Cs, there are 8 black female TTTP and 10 black male. With three black male and three black female TTTP, Pitzer beats national and 5C averages for black male faculty, black female faculty, and total black faculty. And, 8.13% of CMC’s TTTP are black males, compared to 1.9% at the 5Cs and 2.9% nationally. However, only 1.6% of CMC’s TTTP are black females, which is enough to beat the 5C average of 1.5%, but not 4.0%, the national percentage.
Most of the 5Cs have higher percentages of Hispanic/Latin@ male and female faculty than the rest of the country. However, CMC has zero Hispanic/Latino@ female TTTP, and Hispanic/Latin@ female TTTP make up only 1.2% of Harvey Mudd’s permanent faculty, compared to 2.1% nationwide.
For the past few years, there have been more female than male doctoral graduates from every racial/ethnic category except non-resident aliens. As long as the 5Cs don’t focus on hiring international academics, it seems reasonable to expect that more and more female professors will be hired to permanent positions in the coming years.